Zakon

Sa Wikipedije, slobodne enciklopedije
Sko?i na: orijentacija , traži
Lady Pravda je simbol pravosu?a. [1] [2] Pravda je prikazan kao božice opremljena sa tri simbola vladavine prava : a ma? simbolizira suda prisilne snage; skale predstavljaju objektivnu normu po kojoj se natje?u potraživanja prosu?uje ;. i povez za o?i pokazuje da je pravda (ili bi trebali biti) utvrdio objektivno, bez straha ili korist, bez obzira na identitet, novac, mo? ili slabost [3]

Zakon [4] je sustav pravila i smjernica koje se provode kroz društvene institucije upravljati ponašanje, gdje je to mogu?e. [5] oblikuje politike i ekonomije i društva na brojne na?ine, a služi kao posrednik društvenog odnosa me?u ljudima. Ugovor zakon regulira sve, od kupnje autobusne karte za trgovanje na tržištu izvedenicama . nekretnine Zakon definira prava i obveze vezane za prijenos i naziv osobne i nekretnina . Povjerenje zakon se odnosi na ulaganja koja se drže za ulaganja i financijska sigurnost, dok su delikt zakon dopušta zahtjevi za naknadu ako ste osoba prava ili imovina ošte?ena . Ako je kaznenim djelom zla u zakonodavstvu, kazneno pravo nudi sredstva pomo?u kojih država može sudsko gonjenje po?initelja. Ustavni zakon pruža okvir za izradu zakona, zaštite ljudskih prava i izbor politi?kih predstavnika. Upravni zakon se koristi za ocjenu odluke državnih tijela, dok me?unarodni zakon ure?uje pitanja izme?u suverenih država u aktivnosti u rasponu od trgovine do okoliša propisa ili vojnom akcijom. Pisanje u 350 prije Krista, gr?ki filozof Aristotel je izjavio: " Vladavina prava je bolje nego pravilo bilo kojeg pojedinca. " [6]

Pravnih sustava razraditi prava i odgovornosti u na razne na?ine. Op?enito razlika može biti izme?u državnih zakona nadležnosti , što kodificirati njihovih zakona i common law sustava, gdje je sudac napravio zakon nije konsolidirano. U nekim zemljama, religija obavještava zakon. Zakon pruža bogat izvor znanstvenih istraživanja, u pravnoj povijesti i filozofije i ekonomske analize i sociologije . Zakon tako?er pove?ava važne i složene probleme koji se ti?u ravnopravnosti , pravednosti i pravde . "U svojoj veli?anstvenoj jednakosti", kazao je autor Anatole France 1894 ", zakon zabranjuje siromašnijima i bogatijima da spavaju ispod mostova, prositi na ulicama i ukrasti kruha". [7] U tipi?nom demokracije , središnja institucija za tuma?enje i stvaranje zakona su tri glavne grane vlasti , naime nepristrano pravosu?e , demokratsko zakonodavstvo i odgovorna izvršna . Za provedbu zakona i pružanje usluga za javnost, vlada je birokracija, vojska i policija su od vitalnog zna?aja. Iako svi ti organi države su bi?a stvorena i dužni po zakonu, nezavisne pravne profesije i živo civilnog društva informiranje i potporu za svoj ??napredak.

Sadržaj

[ uredi ] Pravni subjekti

Svi pravni sustavi bave istim osnovnim pitanjima, ali pravni kategorizirati i odrediti svoje pravnih subjekata na razli?ite na?ine. Zajedni?ka razlika je da je izme?u " javnog prava "(pojam je usko vezana za države , uklju?uju?i i ustavne, upravne i kaznenog prava), i " privatno pravo "(koja obuhva?a ugovor, temelju kršenja i imovinu). [8] U gra?anskog prava sustavi, ugovor i krivicom spadaju u op?e obveznog prava , a vjeruje se zakon bavi pod zakonskih režima ili me?unarodnim konvencijama . International, ustavno i upravno pravo, kazneno pravo, ugovor, delikt, vlasništvo zakon i vjeruje se smatra kao "tradicionalnih temeljnih predmeta" i [9] Iako postoje mnoge dodatne discipline .

[ uredi ] Me?unarodno pravo

Pružanje ustav za me?unarodnog javnog prava, Ujedinjeni narodi sustav dogovoreno je tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata

Me?unarodno pravo se može odnositi na tri stvari: me?unarodno javno pravo, me?unarodno privatno pravo ili sukob zakona i zakona o nadnacionalnim organizacijama.

  • Sukob zakona (ili "me?unarodno privatno pravo" u gra?ansko pravo zemalja) koji se ti?e nadležnosti pravnog spora izme?u privatnih stranaka treba ?uti u nadležnosti, a koji zakon treba primijeniti. Danas, tvrtke su sve mogu?nosti pomicanja kapitala i rada opskrbnim lancima preko granice, kao i trgovanje s tvrtkama u inozemstvu, što je pitanje koje država ima jurisdikciju još pritiskom. Ve?i broj poduze?a odlu?iti za komercijalnu arbitražu pod New York Konvencije 1958 . [13]
  • Europska unija zakon je prvi i do sada, samo primjer nadnacionalni pravni okvir . S obzirom na trend pove?anja globalne gospodarske integracije, mnogi regionalni sporazumi, osobito Unije južnoameri?kih naroda , su na putu da slijede isti model. U EU, suverene nacije, okupili su se njihove ovlasti u sustavu sudova i politi?kih institucija . Ove institucije mogu sposobnost da provede pravne norme i protiv ili država ?lanica i gra?ana na na?in koji nije mogu?e putem javnog me?unarodnog prava. [14] Kao Europskog suda pravde , rekao je u 1960, pravo Europske unije predstavlja " novi pravni poredak me?unarodnog prava "za me?usobne socijalne i ekonomske koristi od država ?lanica. [15]

[ uredi ] Ustavni i upravno pravo

Francuska Deklaracija o pravima ?ovjeka i gra?anina , ?ija su na?ela još uvijek imaju ustavnu vrijednost

Ustavni i upravno pravo upravljati poslovima države. Ustavnog zakona odnosi obje odnosi izme?u izvršne, zakonodavne i pravosu?a i ljudskih prava i gra?anskih sloboda pojedinaca protiv države. Ve?ina nadležnosti, kao što su SAD i Francuska , imaju jednu kodificirani ustav s ra?una prava . Nekoliko, poput Velike Britanije , nemaju takav dokument. "Ustav" je jednostavno ti se zakoni koji ?ine politi?ko tijelo , od zakona, i sudske prakse i konvencije . Slu?aj nazvan Entick v Carrington [16] ilustrira ustavno na?elo proizlazi iz obi?ajnog prava. G. Entick ku?a je pretraženo i pretraživala po šerif Carrington. Kada g. Entick žalio na sudu, šerif Carrington je tvrdio da je nalog iz Vlade ministra, Earl of Halifax , bio je valjana tijelo. Me?utim, ne postoji zakonska odredba napisana i sudske vlasti. Vodi sudac Gospodin Camden , izjavio je da,

Veliki kraj, za koje su muškarci ušli u društvo, bio je osigurati svoju imovinu. To pravo se ?uva sveto i bez prometa u svim slu?ajevima gdje to nije oduzeta ili skra?eno nekim javnog prava za dobrobit cijelog ... Ako nema izgovor da se mogu na?i ili su proizvedeni, tišina knjiga je tijelo protiv tuženika, a tužitelj mora imati presudu. [17]

Temeljno ustavno na?elo, inspiriran John Locke , smatra da pojedinac može u?initi ništa, ali ono što je zabranjeno zakonom , a države mogu u?initi ništa, ali ono što je ovlašten zakonom. [18] [19] upravno pravo je glavni Na?in za ljude da imaju državna tijela na ra?un. Ljudi mogu podnijeti zahtjev za sudsko preispitivanje akcija ili odluka lokalnih vije?a, javnim službama i državnim ministarstvima, kako bi se osiguralo da su u skladu sa zakonom. Prvi stru?njak za upravni sud je Conseil d'État postavljen u 1799, kao Napoleon je preuzeo vlast u Francuskoj. [20]

[ uredi ] Kazneno pravo

Kazneno pravo, tako?er poznat kao kaznenog zakona, odnosi se na kaznena djela i kazne. [21] Tako regulira definiciju i kazne za prekršaje koje se utvrdi da ima dovoljno štetan društveni utjecaj, ali u sebi, ne daje nikakav moralni sud na po?initelja, niti name?e ograni?enja društva da fizi?ki sprije?i ljude od po?injenja kaznenog djela na prvom mjestu. [22] Ispitivanje, uhi?enju, punjenje, i pokušava osumnji?enih prijestupnika je regulirano zakonom kaznenog postupka . [23] paradigma slu?aj kriminala leži u dokaz, van svake razumne sumnje , da je ?ovjek kriv za dvije stvari. Prvo, optuženi mora po?initi djelo koje se smatra društvo biti kazneno ili actus reus (?in kriv). [24] Drugo, optuženi mora imati potrebnu zlonamjerne namjeru da to kazneno djelo, ili mens rea (krivim um ). Me?utim, za tzv " objektivne odgovornosti "zlo?ina, actus reus je dovoljno. [25] Kazneni sustavi gra?anskog prava tradicije razlikuju namjere u širem smislu (dolus directus i dolus eventualis), i nemar. Nemar ne nosi kaznenu odgovornost, osim ako kazneno djelo posebno daje za svoje kazne. [26] [27]

Prikaz za 1600 kazneno su?enje za ?arobnjaštvo u Salem

Primjeri kaznenih djela uklju?uju ubojstva i napad i prijevare i kra?e . U iznimnim okolnostima obrana može primijeniti na odre?ene radnje, kao što je ubojstvo u samoobrani , ili moli ludost . Drugi primjer je u 19. stolje?a Engleski slu?aju R v Dudley i Stephens , koji je testiran na obranu " nužnosti ". Ljubimac, plove?i iz Southamptona u Sydneyu , potonuo. Tri ?lana posade i Richard Parker, 17-godišnji dje?ak kabina, nasu?em na splav. Oni su gladovali i kabina dje?ak je bio blizu smrti. Potaknut ekstremnim gladi, posada ubio i pojeo dje?aka u kabine. Posade su spašeni i preživjela, ali se sudi za ubojstvo. Tvrdili su da je potrebno ubiti kabine dje?aka za o?uvanje svoje vlastite živote. Gospodin Coleridge , izražavaju?i ogromnu neodobravanje, vladati, "sa?uvati svoj ??život je op?enito govore?i dužnost, ali to može biti plainest i najviša dužnost da ga žrtvovati. " Muškarci su bili osu?eni na vješanje , no javno mnijenje je velikom ve?inom podržavaju od posade prava na o?uvanje vlastite živote. Na kraju, vijenac ublažene kazne do šest mjeseci zatvora. [28]

Kazneni zakon djela motre se kao djela protiv ne samo pojedinih žrtava, ali zajednica kao dobro. [22] stanje, obi?no uz pomo? policije, preuzima vodstvo u tužiteljstvu, zbog ?ega je u zemljama common law slu?ajevima navode se kao " Narod v ... " ili "R (za Rexa ili Regina ) v ... " Tako?er, stavi žirija ?esto se koristi kako bi se utvrdilo krivnju optuženika na ?injenicama: žiri ne može promijeniti zakonske propise. Neke razvijene zemlje i dalje odobrava smrtnu kaznu za kriminalne aktivnosti, ali normalno kazna za zlo?in ?e biti zatvora , kazne , državni nadzor (kao što je uvjetno), ili služba društvene zajednice . Moderna kazneno pravo je znatno utjecala je društvenim znanostima, osobito u pogledu izricanja kazne , pravna istraživanja, zakonodavstvo, i rehabilitacije . [29] Na me?unarodnoj razini, 111 zemlje ?lanice u Me?unarodnom kaznenom sudu , koji je osnovan pokušati ljude za zlo?ine protiv ?ovje?nosti . [30]

[ uredi ] ugovorno pravo

Poznati karbolni dimna bomba oglasnik za lije?enje gripe održan biti jednostrani ugovor

Ugovor se odnosi na zakon izvršnih obe?anja, a može se sažeti u Latinskoj frazu pacta sunt servanda (ugovori moraju biti). [31] U common law pravnim, tri klju?na elementa u stvaranju ugovora su potrebne: ponuda i prihvat , razmatranje a namjera stvoriti pravne odnose. U Carlill protiv karbolni dimna bomba Društva medicinskih tvrtka oglašava da je njegov novi ?udo droga, smokeball bi lije?iti ljudi gripe, a ako nisu, kupci ?e dobiti £ 100. Mnogi ljudi tužio za njihovu £ 100, kada se lijek ne rade. Boje?i se bankrot , karbolni tvrdio oglas ne može se uzeti kao ozbiljnog, pravno obvezuju?e ponude. To je bio poziv za lije?enje , samo lisnato, trik. Me?utim, drugostupanjski sud je zaklju?io da na razuman ?ovjek karbolni je napravio ozbiljnu ponudu. Ljudi dao dobru naknadu za njega tako da odete na "razli?ita" neugodnosti korištenja neispravan proizvod. "Pro?itajte oglas kako ?ete, i okretati oko kao što ?e", rekao je Gospodin pravde Lindley , "ovdje se razlikuje obe?anje izražen u jeziku koji je posve nepogrešiva". [32]

"Naknada" ukazuje na ?injenicu da su sve stranke ugovora zamijeniti nešto od vrijednosti. Neki common law sustava, uklju?uju?i Australiju, su se odmaknuli od ideje o obzir kao uvjet. Ideja dokazom tvrdnje ili Culpa u contrahendo, može se koristiti za stvaranje obveze tijekom pre-ugovornim pregovorima. [33] U gra?anskim pravnim državama, u obzir se ne zahtjeva za ugovorom obvezuju. [34] U Francuskoj, obi?ni ugovor rekao je da se formira samo na temelju "Sastanak umova" ili "suglasnost volja." Njema?ka ima poseban pristup ugovorima, koji veže na imovinskog prava. Njihov ' apstrakciji na?elo '(Abstraktionsprinzip) zna?i da je osobna obveza ugovora ?ini odvojeno od naslova Objekt se dodjeljuje. Kada se ugovori poništio zbog nekog razloga (npr. automobil kupac je toliko pijan da on nema pravnu sposobnost sklapanja ugovora) [35] ugovorna obveza za pla?anje može se poništava odvojeno od vlasni?kih naslov automobila. nepravedno oboga?ivanje zakon, a ne ugovor zakon, onda se koristi za vratiti naslov na zakonitom vlasniku. [36]

[ uredi ] Pravo naknade štete

" McLibel "dva su bili uklju?eni u najdulji tr?anje slu?aju u povijesti Velike Britanije za objavljivanje pamflet kritiziraju McDonald'sa restorana.

Torts, ponekad zvan delicts , su državni nepravdi. Da bi djelovali tortiously, jedan mora biti prekršena obvezu prema drugoj osobi, ili povrije?eno neki ve? postoje?i zakonsko pravo. Jednostavan primjer može biti slu?ajno udaranje netko s kriket loptica. [37] Prema zakonu nehaja , koja je naj?eš?i oblik krivicom, ošte?enik potencijalno mogao tražiti naknadu za svoje ozljede od strane odgovorne. Na?ela nepažnje ilustrira Donoghue protiv Stevenson . [38] prijatelj gospo?e Donoghue naredio neprozirnim bocu piva od ?umbira (namijenjen potrošnji g?a Donoghue) u kafi?u u Paisley . Nakon što je utrošeno pola od toga, g?a Donoghue izlije ostatak u pelivan. Razgradnjom ostataka puža plutali van. Tvrdila je da je patio od šoka, razbolio s gastroenteritisa i tužio proizvo?a?a za bezbrižno ?ime pi?e biti kontaminirane. Dom lordova odlu?io da proizvo?a? je odgovoran za gospo?e Donoghue boleš?u. Gospodin Atkin je izrazito moralni pristup, i re?e:

Odgovornost za nemar ... je bez sumnje temelji se na op?e javne osje?aja moralnog prijestupa za koje po?initelj mora platiti ... Pravilo da se za ljubav svoga bližnjega postaje u zakonu, ne smije ozlijediti svoga bližnjega, a odvjetnik je pitanje, tko je moj bližnji? prima ograni?en odgovor. Morate poduzeti razumne skrbi kako bi se izbjeglo djela ili propuste koje razumno može predvidjeti bi moglo ozlijediti svoga bližnjega. [39]

To je postalo osnova za ?etiri na?ela nepažnje; (1) G. Stevenson duguje g?a Donoghue je dužnost skrbi za pružanje sigurne pi?a (2) je prekršio svoju dužnost skrbi (3) štete ne bi dogodilo , ali za njegove povrede i (4) njegovo djelo je uzro?no-posljedi?na veza , ili ne previše udaljenog posljedica, njezina zla. [38] Drugi primjer temelju kršenja može biti susjed izradu pretjerano glasne zvukove sa strojevima na svoje imovine. [40] Pod neugodnost zahtjeva buka može biti zaustavljen. Torts tako?er može uklju?ivati ??namjernih radnji, kao što su zlostavljanje i baterije ili posrtaju . Poznatiji delikt je kleveta , koja se pojavljuje, na primjer, kada novine ?ini unsupportable tvrdnje da ?e šteta politi?ara reputaciju. [41] Više sramotno su ekonomski torts, koji ?ine osnovu radnog prava u nekim zemljama tako što sindikati odgovoran za štrajkova, [42] kada zakon ne daje imunitet. [43]

[ uredi ] imovinskih zakona

Slika od South Sea Bubble , jedan od svjetskih prva ikada spekulacije i pad sustava, dovelo do strogih propisa o trgovanju dionica. [44]

Nekretnine Zakon ure?uje vrijedne stvari koje ljudi nazivaju 'njihova'. Nekretnine , ponekad zvan "nekretnine" odnosi vlasništva zemljišta i stvari priklju?en na njega. [45] osobne imovine , odnosi se na sve drugo, pokretne objekte, kao što su ra?unala, automobili, nakit, i sendvi?i, ili nematerijalna prava, kao i dionica . Pravo zaloga u je pravo na odre?eni dio imovine, u kontrastu s desne strane u personam koji omogu?uje kompenzaciju za gubitak, ali ne osobito stvar natrag. Zemljište zakon predstavlja osnovu za ve?inu vrsta imovinskih zakona, te je najsloženiji. Rije? je o hipoteka i najam ugovore i dozvole i ugovorima i easements i zakonske sustave za zemljišne knjige. Pravilnik o uporabi osobne imovine pada pod intelektualnog vlasništva i tvrtke zakonom i vjeruje i trgova?kog prava . Primjer osnovnog slu?aju ve?ine imovinskog prava je oružana v Delamirie . [46] dimnja?ar je dje?ak pronašao dragulj encrusted s dragim kamenjem. On ga je na zlatar da se to cijeni. , Zlatar šegrt gledao na to, sneakily ukloniti kamenje, rekao je dje?ak vrijedan tri halfpence i da ?e ga kupiti. Dje?ak je rekao da bi radije dragulj natrag, tako da je u?enik ga je dao njemu, ali bez kamenja. Dje?ak je tužio zlatara za svoje Pripravnika pokušaju da ga prevariti. Gospodin na?elnik pravde Pratt je presudio da iako dje?ak ne može re?i da posjedujete dragulj, on bi trebao uzeti u obzir Stvarni ?uvar ("tražila ?uvar") dok izvorni vlasnik je prona?en. U stvari u?enik i dje?ak imali su pravo na posjed u dragulja (tehni?ki koncept, što zna?i dokaz da je nešto mogao pripadati nekome), ali dje?aka uživanje kamata smatra bolje, jer bi to moglo biti vidljiva kao prvi u vremenu . Posjed može biti devet desetina zakona, ali ne sve.

Ovaj slu?aj se koristi za podršku u pogledu imovine u common law pravnim, da je osoba koja može pokazati najbolju zahtjev za komad imovine, protiv bilo koje stranke natje?u, je vlasnik. [47] Nasuprot tome, klasi?ni pristup gra?ansko pravo imovine, iznio je Friedrich Carl von Savigny , je da je pravo dobra protiv svijeta. Obveze, poput ugovora i torts zamišljen je kao prava dobra izme?u pojedinaca. [48] Ideja o objektu postavlja mnoga daljnja filozofska i politi?ka pitanja. Locke je tvrdio da su naši "živi i slobode i imanja" su naše vlasništvo jer mi sami, naše tijelo i miješati naš rad s našim okolišem. [49]

[ uredi ] Equity i vjeruje

Sud ordinarijata u Londonu, po?etkom 19. stolje?a

Kapital je tijelo pravila koja se razvila u Engleskoj odvojeno od "obi?ajnog prava". Common law je primijenjen od strane sudaca. Gospodin kancelar s druge strane, kao kraljev ?uvar savjesti, mogao odbiti sudac je zakon ako je mislio da je pravedno da to u?inite. [50] To je zna?ilo kapital došao raditi kroz više na?ela od krutih pravila. Na primjer, dok ni common law ni državni zakon sustavi omogu?uju ljudima da podijeliti vlasništvo sa kontrolom jednog dijela imovine, kapitala dopušta kroz dogovoru poznat kao 'povjerenja'. To povjerenika kontrolom imovine, dok je 'korisno' (ili 'pravi?nosti') vlasništvo povjerenja imovine drže ljudi poznatih kao 'korisnika'. Povjerenici duguju dužnosti svojim korisnicima da se dobro pobrinuti za povjerene imovine. [51] U ranom slu?aju Keech stala v Sandford [52] Dijete je naslijedio zakup na tržištu u Romford , London. G. Sandford povjerena je da se brine o ovom objektu dok je dijete zrelo. No, prije toga, najam istekao. Doma?in je (navodno) rekao je g. Sandford da on ne želi dijete imati ponovni zakup. Ipak, stanodavac je sretan (o?ito) da g. Sandford mogu?nost najma umjesto. G. Sandford ga. Kada dijete (sada g. Keech stala) odrastao, on je tužio gospodina Sandford, za dobit koja mu je odluka uzimaju?i tržišnu zakup. G. Sandford je trebao biti pouzdana, ali on se staviti u poziciju sukoba interesa . Gospodin kancelar , gospodaru kralju , dogovorili i naredili g. Sandford treba bljuvati svoje dobiti. On je napisao:

Ja sam vrlo dobro vidjeti, ako ste?ajni upravitelj, na odbijanje za obnovu, mogla bi imati ugovor na sebe malo povjerenja posjede ?e se obnoviti ... Ovaj svibanj ?initi se vrlo teško, da je ste?ajni upravitelj je jedina osoba cijelog ?ovje?anstva koji ne mogu imati u zakup, ali je vrlo prikladno da pravilo strogo provoditi, a ne na sve opušteno.

Naravno, Gospodin Kralj LC je zabrinut da povjerenici mogli iskoristiti mogu?nosti koristiti povjerenje nekretninu za sebe umjesto da brine o njemu. Poslovni špekulanti koriste?i vjeruje tek nedavno izazvao pad dionica na tržištu . Strogi dužnosti za povjerenika je napravio njihov put u pravu trgova?kih društava te su primijenjena na direktora i Izvršni direktori . Drugi primjer upravitelj dužnosti moglo bi biti mudro investirati imovinu ili prodati ga. [53] To je osobito slu?aj kod mirovinskih fondova, najvažniji oblik povjerenja, gdje investitori su povjerenici za ljudi štednje do odlaska u mirovinu . No, vjeruje se tako?er može postaviti za dobrotvorne svrhe , poznati primjeri ?emu su British Museum i Rockefeller Foundation .

[ uredi ] Ostale discipline

Zakon se širi daleko izvan glavnih tema u gotovo svakom podru?ju života. Tri kategorije su prikazani za prakti?nost, iako subjekata ispreple?u i preklapaju.

Zakon i društvo
Prosvjed sindikata je jednoglasno , dok u štrajku
Zakon i trgovinu
Zakonska regulativa
New York Stock Exchange Trading kat nakon Crash Wall Street iz 1929 , prije nego što oštrije bankovnoj regulativi uveden

[ uredi ] Pravni sustavi

U principu, pravni sustavi se mogu podijeliti izme?u gra?anskog prava i common law sustava. [57] Izraz "gra?ansko pravo", misle?i na pravnom sustavu ne treba brkati s "gra?anskog prava" kao skupina pravnih subjekata koji se razlikuju od kaznenog ili javni zakon . A third type of legal system—accepted by some countries without separation of church and state —is religious law, based on scriptures . The specific system that a country is ruled by is often determined by its history, connections with other countries, or its adherence to international standards. The sources that jurisdictions adopt as authoritatively binding are the defining features of any legal system. Yet classification is a matter of form rather than substance, since similar rules often prevail.

[ edit ] Civil law

First page of the 1804 edition of the Napoleonic Code

Civil law is the legal system used in most countries around the world today. In civil law the sources recognised as authoritative are, primarily, legislation—especially codifications in constitutions or statutes passed by government—and custom . [ 58 ] Codifications date back millennia, with one early example being the Babylonian Codex Hammurabi . Modern civil law systems essentially derive from the legal practice of the 6th-century Eastern Roman Empire whose texts were rediscovered by late medieval Western Europe. Roman law in the days of the Roman Republic and Empire was heavily procedural, and lacked a professional legal class. [ 59 ] Instead a lay magistrate , iudex , was chosen to adjudicate. Precedents were not reported, so any case law that developed was disguised and almost unrecognised. [ 60 ] Each case was to be decided afresh from the laws of the State, which mirrors the (theoretical) unimportance of judges' decisions for future cases in civil law systems today. From 529–534 AD the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I codified and consolidated Roman law up until that point, so that what remained was one-twentieth of the mass of legal texts from before. [ 61 ] This became known as the Corpus Juris Civilis . As one legal historian wrote, "Justinian consciously looked back to the golden age of Roman law and aimed to restore it to the peak it had reached three centuries before." [ 62 ] The Justinian Code remained in force in the East until the fall of the Byzantine Empire . Western Europe, meanwhile, relied on a mix of the Theodosian Code and Germanic customary law until the Justinian Code was rediscovered in the 11th century, and scholars at the University of Bologna used it to interpret their own laws. [ 63 ] Civil law codifications based closely on Roman law, alongside some influences from religious laws such as Canon law , continued to spread throughout Europe until the Enlightenment ; then, in the 19th century, both France, with the Code Civil , and Germany, with the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch , modernised their legal codes. Both these codes influenced heavily not only the law systems of the countries in continental Europe (eg Greece), but also the Japanese and Korean legal traditions. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] Today, countries that have civil law systems range from Russia and China to most of Central and Latin America . [ 66 ] The United States follows the common law system described below.

[ edit ] Common law and equity

King John of England signs Magna Carta

Common law and equity are legal systems where decisions by courts are explicitly acknowledged to be legal sources. The "doctrine of precedent", or stare decisis (Latin for "to stand by decisions") means that decisions by higher courts bind lower courts. Common law systems also rely on statutes, passed by the legislature, but may make less of a systematic attempt to codify their laws than in a "civil law" system. Common law originated from England and has been inherited by almost every country once tied to the British Empire (except Malta, Scotland , the US state of Louisiana , and the Canadian province of Quebec ). In medieval England, the Norman conquest led to a unification of various tribal customs and hence a law "common" to the whole country. The common law developed when the English monarchy had been weakened by the enormous cost of fighting for control over large parts of France. King John had been forced by his barons to sign a document limiting his authority to pass laws. This "great charter" or Magna Carta of 1215 also required that the King's entourage of judges hold their courts and judgments at "a certain place" rather than dispensing autocratic justice in unpredictable places about the country. [ 67 ] A concentrated and elite group of judges acquired a dominant role in law-making under this system, and compared to its European counterparts the English judiciary became highly centralised. In 1297, for instance, while the highest court in France had fifty-one judges, the English Court of Common Pleas had five. [ 68 ] This powerful and tight-knit judiciary gave rise to a rigid and inflexible system of common law. [ 69 ] As a result, as time went on, increasing numbers of citizens petitioned the King to override the common law, and on the King's behalf the Lord Chancellor gave judgment to do what was equitable in a case. From the time of Sir Thomas More , the first lawyer to be appointed as Lord Chancellor, a systematic body of equity grew up alongside the rigid common law, and developed its own Court of Chancery . At first, equity was often criticised as erratic, that it varied according to the length of the Chancellor's foot. [ 70 ] But over time it developed solid principles , especially under Lord Eldon . [ 71 ] In the 19th century the two systems were fused into one another. In developing the common law and equity, academic authors have always played an important part. William Blackstone , from around 1760, was the first scholar to describe and teach it. [ 72 ] But merely in describing, scholars who sought explanations and underlying structures slowly changed the way the law actually worked. [ 73 ]

[ edit ] Religious law

Religious law is explicitly based on religious precepts. Examples include the Jewish Halakha and Islamic Sharia—both of which translate as the "path to follow"—while Christian canon law also survives in some church communities. Often the implication of religion for law is unalterability, because the word of God cannot be amended or legislated against by judges or governments. However a thorough and detailed legal system generally requires human elaboration. For instance, the Quran has some law, and it acts as a source of further law through interpretation, [ 74 ] Qiyas (reasoning by analogy), Ijma (consensus) and precedent . This is mainly contained in a body of law and jurisprudence known as Sharia and Fiqh respectively. Another example is the Torah or Old Testament , in the Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses. This contains the basic code of Jewish law, which some Israeli communities choose to use. The Halakha is a code of Jewish law which summarises some of the Talmud's interpretations. Nevertheless, Israeli law allows litigants to use religious laws only if they choose. Canon law is only in use by members of the Catholic Church , the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion .

A trial in the Ottoman Empire, 1879, when religious law applied under the Mecelle

Until the 18th century, Sharia law was practiced throughout the Muslim world in a non-codified form, with the Ottoman Empire 's Mecelle code in the 19th century being first attempt at codifying elements of Sharia law. Since the mid-1940s, efforts have been made, in country after country, to bring Sharia law more into line with modern conditions and conceptions. [ 75 ] [ 76 ] In modern times, the legal systems of many Muslim countries draw upon both civil and common law traditions as well as Islamic law and custom. The constitutions of certain Muslim states, such as Egypt and Afghanistan, recognise Islam as the religion of the state, obliging legislature to adhere to Sharia. [ 77 ] Saudi Arabia recognises Quran as its constitution, and is governed on the basis of Islamic law. [ 78 ] Iran has also witnessed a reiteration of Islamic law into its legal system after 1979. [ 79 ] During the last few decades, one of the fundamental features of the movement of Islamic resurgence has been the call to restore the Sharia, which has generated a vast amount of literature and affected world politics . [ 80 ]

[ edit ] Legal theory

[ edit ] History of law

King Hammurabi is revealed the code of laws by the Mesopotamian sun god Shamash , also revered as the god of justice

The history of law is closely connected to the development of civilization . Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code that was probably broken into twelve books. It was based on the concept of Ma'at , characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code , which consisted of casuistic statements ("if ... then ..."). Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law , by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae , for the entire public to see; this became known as the Codex Hammurabi . The most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, and has since been fully transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, German, and French. [ 83 ]

The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society. The small Greek city-state, ancient Athens , from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law", [ 84 ] relying instead on the three-way distinction between divine law ( thémis ), human decree ( nomos ) and custom ( dík? ). [ 85 ] Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy . [ 86 ]

Roman law was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were highly sophisticated. [ 87 ] [ 88 ] Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire , law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification under Theodosius II and Justinian I . [ 89 ] Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages , Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when mediæval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. In mediæval England, royal courts developed a body of precedent which later became the common law . A Europe-wide Law Merchant was formed so that merchants could trade with common standards of practice rather than with the many splintered facets of local laws. The Law Merchant, a precursor to modern commercial law, emphasised the freedom to contract and alienability of property. [ 90 ] As nationalism grew in the 18th and 19th centuries, the Law Merchant was incorporated into countries' local law under new civil codes. The Napoleonic and German Codes became the most influential. In contrast to English common law, which consists of enormous tomes of case law, codes in small books are easy to export and easy for judges to apply. However, today there are signs that civil and common law are converging. [ 91 ] EU law is codified in treaties, but develops through the precedent laid down by the European Court of Justice .

The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing 444 articles, 12 schedules, numerous amendments and 117,369 words

Ancient India and China represent distinct traditions of law, and have historically had independent schools of legal theory and practice. The Arthashastra , probably compiled around 100 AD (although it contains older material), and the Manusmriti (c. 100–300 AD) were foundational treatises in India, and comprise texts considered authoritative legal guidance. [ 92 ] Manu's central philosophy was tolerance and Pluralism , and was cited across Southeast Asia. [ 93 ] This Hindu tradition, along with Islamic law, was supplanted by the common law when India became part of the British Empire . [ 94 ] Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore and Hong Kong also adopted the common law. The eastern Asia legal tradition reflects a unique blend of secular and religious influences. [ 95 ] Japan was the first country to begin modernising its legal system along western lines, by importing bits of the French , but mostly the German Civil Code. [ 96 ] This partly reflected Germany's status as a rising power in the late 19th century. Similarly, traditional Chinese law gave way to westernisation towards the final years of the Ch'ing dynasty in the form of six private law codes based mainly on the Japanese model of German law. [ 97 ] Today Taiwanese law retains the closest affinity to the codifications from that period, because of the split between Chiang Kai-shek 's nationalists, who fled there, and Mao Zedong 's communists who won control of the mainland in 1949. The current legal infrastructure in the People's Republic of China was heavily influenced by Soviet Socialist law , which essentially inflates administrative law at the expense of private law rights. [ 98 ] Due to rapid industrialisation, today China is undergoing a process of reform, at least in terms of economic, if not social and political, rights. A new contract code in 1999 represented a move away from administrative domination. [ 99 ] Furthermore, after negotiations lasting fifteen years, in 2001 China joined the World Trade Organisation . [ 100 ]

[ uredi ] Filozofija prava

"But what, after all, is a law? [...] When I say that the object of laws is always general, I mean that law considers subjects en masse and actions in the abstract, and never a particular person or action. [...] On this view, we at once see that it can no longer be asked whose business it is to make laws, since they are acts of the general will; nor whether the prince is above the law, since he is a member of the State; nor whether the law can be unjust, since no one is unjust to himself; nor how we can be both free and subject to the laws, since they are but registers of our wills."

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract , II, 6. [ 101 ]

The philosophy of law is commonly known as jurisprudence. Normative jurisprudence is essentially political philosophy , and asks "what should law be?", while analytic jurisprudence asks "what is law?". John Austin 's utilitarian answer was that law is "commands, backed by threat of sanctions, from a sovereign, to whom people have a habit of obedience". [ 102 ] Natural lawyers on the other side, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau , argue that law reflects essentially moral and unchangeable laws of nature. The concept of "natural law" emerged in ancient Greek philosophy concurrently and in entanglement with the notion of justice, and re-entered the mainstream of Western culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinas .

Hugo Grotius , the founder of a purely rationalistic system of natural law, argued that law arises from both a social impulse—as Aristotle had indicated—and reason. [ 103 ] Immanuel Kant believed a moral imperative requires laws "be chosen as though they should hold as universal laws of nature". [ 104 ] Jeremy Bentham and his student Austin, following David Hume , believed that this conflated the "is" and what "ought to be" problem. Bentham and Austin argued for law's positivism ; that real law is entirely separate from "morality". [ 105 ] Kant was also criticised by Friedrich Nietzsche , who rejected the principle of equality, and believed that law emanates from the will to power , and cannot be labelled as "moral" or "immoral". [ 106 ] [ 107 ] [ 108 ]

In 1934, the Austrian philosopher Hans Kelsen continued the positivist tradition in his book the Pure Theory of Law . [ 109 ] Kelsen believed that although law is separate from morality, it is endowed with "normativity"; meaning we ought to obey it. While laws are positive "is" statements (eg the fine for reversing on a highway is 500); law tells us what we "should" do. Thus, each legal system can be hypothesised to have a basic norm ( Grundnorm ) instructing us to obey. Kelsen's major opponent, Carl Schmitt , rejected both positivism and the idea of the rule of law because he did not accept the primacy of abstract normative principles over concrete political positions and decisions. [ 110 ] Therefore, Schmitt advocated a jurisprudence of the exception ( state of emergency ), which denied that legal norms could encompass of all political experience. [ 111 ]

Bentham's utilitarian theories remained dominant in law until the 20th century

Later in the 20th century, HLA Hart attacked Austin for his simplifications and Kelsen for his fictions in The Concept of Law . [ 112 ] Hart argued law is a system of rules, divided into primary (rules of conduct) and secondary ones (rules addressed to officials to administer primary rules). Secondary rules are further divided into rules of adjudication (to resolve legal disputes), rules of change (allowing laws to be varied) and the rule of recognition (allowing laws to be identified as valid). Two of Hart's students continued the debate: In his book Law's Empire , Ronald Dworkin attacked Hart and the positivists for their refusal to treat law as a moral issue. Dworkin argues that law is an " interpretive concept", [ 113 ] that requires judges to find the best fitting and most just solution to a legal dispute, given their constitutional traditions. Joseph Raz , on the other hand, defended the positivist outlook and criticised Hart's "soft social thesis" approach in The Authority of Law . [ 114 ] Raz argues that law is authority, identifiable purely through social sources and without reference to moral reasoning. In his view, any categorisation of rules beyond their role as authoritative instruments in mediation are best left to sociology , rather than jurisprudence. [ 115 ]

[ edit ] Economic analysis of law

In the 18th century Adam Smith presented a philosophical foundation for explaining the relationship between law and economics. [ 116 ] The discipline arose partly out of a critique of trade unions and US antitrust law. The most influential proponents, such as Richard Posner and Oliver Williamson and the so-called Chicago School of economists and lawyers including Milton Friedman and Gary Becker , are generally advocates of deregulation and privatisation , and are hostile to state regulation or what they see as restrictions on the operation of free markets . [ 117 ]

Richard Posner , one of the Chicago School , runs a blog with Bank of Sweden Prize winning economist Gary Becker . [ 118 ]

The most prominent economic analyst of law is 1991 Nobel Prize winner Ronald Coase , whose first major article, The Nature of the Firm (1937), argued that the reason for the existence of firms (companies, partnerships, etc.) is the existence of transaction costs . [ 119 ] Rational individuals trade through bilateral contracts on open markets until the costs of transactions mean that using corporations to produce things is more cost-effective. His second major article, The Problem of Social Cost (1960), argued that if we lived in a world without transaction costs, people would bargain with one another to create the same allocation of resources, regardless of the way a court might rule in property disputes. [ 120 ] Coase used the example of a nuisance case named Sturges v Bridgman , where a noisy sweetmaker and a quiet doctor were neighbours and went to court to see who should have to move. [ 40 ] Coase said that regardless of whether the judge ruled that the sweetmaker had to stop using his machinery, or that the doctor had to put up with it, they could strike a mutually beneficial bargain about who moves house that reaches the same outcome of resource distribution. Only the existence of transaction costs may prevent this. [ 121 ] So the law ought to pre-empt what would happen, and be guided by the most efficient solution. The idea is that law and regulation are not as important or effective at helping people as lawyers and government planners believe. [ 122 ] Coase and others like him wanted a change of approach, to put the burden of proof for positive effects on a government that was intervening in the market, by analysing the costs of action. [ 123 ]

[ edit ] Sociology of law

Sociology of law is a diverse field of study that examines the interaction of law with society and overlaps with jurisprudence, economic analysis of law and more specialised subjects such as criminology . [ 124 ] The institutions of social construction and legal frameworks are the relevant areas for the discipline's inquiry. At first, legal theorists were suspicious of the discipline. Kelsen attacked one of its founders, Eugen Ehrlich , who sought to make distinct the differences between positive law, which lawyers learn and apply, and other forms of 'law' or social norms that regulate everyday life, generally preventing conflicts from reaching lawyers and courts. [ 125 ] [ 126 ]

Max Weber in 1917, Weber began his career as a lawyer, and is regarded as one of the founders of sociology and sociology of law

Around 1900 Max Weber defined his "scientific" approach to law, identifying the "legal rational form" as a type of domination, not attributable to people but to abstract norms. [ 127 ] Legal rationalism was his term for a body of coherent and calculable law which formed a precondition for modern political developments and the modern bureaucratic state and developed in parallel with the growth of capitalism . [ 124 ] Another sociologist, Émile Durkheim , wrote in The Division of Labour in Society that as society becomes more complex, the body of civil law concerned primarily with restitution and compensation grows at the expense of criminal laws and penal sanctions. [ 128 ] Other notable early legal sociologists included Hugo Sinzheimer , Theodor Geiger , Georges Gurvitch and Leon Petra?ycki in Europe, and William Graham Sumner in the US [ 129 ] [ 130 ]

[ edit ] Legal institutions

It is a real unity of them all in one and the same person, made by covenant of every man with every man, in such manner as if every man should say to every man: I authorise and give up my right of governing myself to this man, or to this assembly of men, on this condition; that thou givest up, thy right to him, and authorise all his actions in like manner.

Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan , XVII

The main institutions of law in industrialised countries are independent courts , representative parliaments , an accountable executive , the military and police , bureaucratic organisation, the legal profession and civil society itself. John Locke, in his Two Treatises of Government , and Baron de Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws , advocated for a separation of powers between the political, legislature and executive bodies. [ 131 ] Their principle was that no person should be able to usurp all powers of the state , in contrast to the absolutist theory of Thomas Hobbes ' Leviathan . [ 132 ]

Max Weber and others reshaped thinking on the extension of state. Modern military, policing and bureaucratic power over ordinary citizens' daily lives pose special problems for accountability that earlier writers such as Locke or Montesquieu could not have foreseen. The custom and practice of the legal profession is an important part of people's access to justice , whilst civil society is a term used to refer to the social institutions, communities and partnerships that form law's political basis.

[ edit ] Judiciary

A judiciary is a number of judges mediating disputes to determine outcome. Most countries have systems of appeal courts, answering up to a supreme legal authority. In the United States, this is the Supreme Court ; [ 133 ] in Australia, the High Court ; in the UK, the Supreme Court ; [ 134 ] in Germany, the Bundesverfassungsgericht ; in France, the Cour de Cassation . [ 135 ] [ 136 ] For most European countries the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg can overrule national law, when EU law is relevant. The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg allows citizens of the Council of Europe member states to bring cases relating to human rights issues before it. [ 137 ]

Some countries allow their highest judicial authority to overrule legislation they determine to be unconstitutional . For example, in Brown v. Board of Education , the United States Supreme Court nullified many state statutes that had established racially segregated schools, finding such statutes to be incompatible with the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution . [ 138 ]

A judiciary is theoretically bound by the constitution, just as all other government bodies are. In most countries judges may only interpret the constitution and all other laws. But in common law countries, where matters are not constitutional, the judiciary may also create law under the doctrine of precedent . The UK, Finland and New Zealand assert the ideal of parliamentary sovereignty , whereby the unelected judiciary may not overturn law passed by a democratic legislature. [ 139 ]

In communist states , such as China, the courts are often regarded as parts of the executive, or subservient to the legislature; governmental institutions and actors exert thus various forms of influence on the judiciary. [ 140 ] In Muslim countries, courts often examine whether state laws adhere to the Sharia: the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt may invalidate such laws, [ 141 ] and in Iran the Guardian Council ensures the compatibility of the legislation with the "criteria of Islam". [ 141 ] [ 142 ]

[ edit ] Legislature

The debating chamber of the European Parliament

Prominent examples of legislatures are the Houses of Parliament in London, the Congress in Washington DC, the Bundestag in Berlin, the Duma in Moscow, the Parlamento Italiano in Rome and the Assemblée nationale in Paris. By the principle of representative government people vote for politicians to carry out their wishes. Although countries like Israel, Greece, Sweden and China are unicameral , most countries are bicameral , meaning they have two separately appointed legislative houses. [ 143 ]

In the 'lower house' politicians are elected to represent smaller constituencies . The 'upper house' is usually elected to represent states in a federal system (as in Australia, Germany or the United States) or different voting configuration in a unitary system (as in France). In the UK the upper house is appointed by the government as a house of review . One criticism of bicameral systems with two elected chambers is that the upper and lower houses may simply mirror one another. The traditional justification of bicameralism is that an upper chamber acts as a house of review. This can minimise arbitrariness and injustice in governmental action. [ 144 ]

To pass legislation, a majority of the members of a legislature must vote for a bill (proposed law) in each house. Normally there will be several readings and amendments proposed by the different political factions. If a country has an entrenched constitution, a special majority for changes to the constitution may be required, making changes to the law more difficult. A government usually leads the process, which can be formed from Members of Parliament (eg the UK or Germany). However, in a presidential system, the government is usually formed by an executive and his or her appointed cabinet officials (eg the United States or Brazil). [ 145 ]

[ edit ] Executive

The G20 meetings are composed of representatives of each country's executive branch

The executive in a legal system serves as a government 's centre of political authority . In a parliamentary system , as with Britain, Italy, Germany, India, and Japan, the executive is known as the cabinet , and composed of members of the legislature. The executive is chosen by the Prime Minister or Chancellor , whose office holds power under the confidence of the legislature. Because popular elections appoint political parties to govern, the leader of a party can change in between elections. [ 146 ]

The head of state is apart from the executive, and symbolically enacts laws and acts as representative of the nation. Examples include the German president (appointed by members of federal and state Parliaments) the Queen of the United Kingdom (a hereditary title), and the Austrian president (elected by popular vote). The other important model is the presidential system , found in France, the US and Russia. In presidential systems, the executive acts as both head of state and head of government, and has power to appoint an unelected cabinet. Under a presidential system, the executive branch is separate from the legislature to which it is not accountable. [ 147 ] [ 148 ]

Although the role of the executive varies from country to country, usually it will propose the majority of legislation, and propose government agenda. In presidential systems, the executive often has the power to veto legislation. Most executives in both systems are responsible for foreign relations , the military and police, and the bureaucracy. Ministers or other officials head a country's public offices, such as a foreign ministry or interior ministry . The election of a different executive is therefore capable of revolutionising an entire country's approach to government.

[ edit ] Military and police

While military organizations have existed as long as government itself, the idea of a standing police force is relatively modern concept. For example, Mediæval England 's system of traveling criminal courts , or assizes , used show trials and public executions to instill communities with fear to maintain control. [ 149 ] The first modern police were probably those in 17th-century Paris, in the court of Louis XIV , [ 150 ] although the Paris Prefecture of Police claim they were the world's first uniformed policemen. [ 151 ]

Max Weber famously argued that the state is that which controls the legitimate monopoly of the means of violence . [ 152 ] [ 153 ] The military and police carry out enforcement at the request of the government or the courts. The term failed state refers to states that cannot implement or enforce policies; their police and military no longer control security and order and society moves into anarchy , the absence of government. [ 154 ]

[ edit ] Bureaucracy

The United Nations ' New York headquarters houses civil servants that serve its 192 member states.

The etymology of "bureaucracy" derives from the French word for "office" ( bureau ) and the Ancient Greek for word "power" ( kratos ). [ 155 ] Like the military and police, a legal system's government servants and bodies that make up its bureaucracy carry out the directives of the executive. One of the earliest references to the concept was made by Baron de Grimm , a German author who lived in France. In 1765 he wrote,

The real spirit of the laws in France is that bureaucracy of which the late Monsieur de Gournay used to complain so greatly; here the offices, clerks, secretaries, inspectors and intendants are not appointed to benefit the public interest, indeed the public interest appears to have been established so that offices might exist. [ 156 ]

Cynicism over "officialdom" is still common, and the workings of public servants is typically contrasted to private enterprise motivated by profit . [ 157 ] In fact private companies, especially large ones, also have bureaucracies. [ 158 ] Negative perceptions of " red tape " aside, public services such as schooling, health care, policing or public transport are a crucial state function making public bureaucratic action the locus of government power. [ 158 ]

Writing in the early 20th century, Max Weber believed that a definitive feature of a developed state had come to be its bureaucratic support. [ 159 ] Weber wrote that the typical characteristics of modern bureaucracy are that officials define its mission, the scope of work is bound by rules, management is composed of career experts, who manage top down, communicating through writing and binding public servants' discretion with rules. [ 160 ]

[ edit ] Legal profession

In civil law systems such as those of France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Greece, there is a distinct category of notary , a legally trained public official, compensated by the parties to a transaction. [ 161 ] This is a 16th-century painting of such a notary by Flemish painter Quentin Massys .

A corollary of the rule of law is the existence of a legal profession sufficiently autonomous to be able to invoke the authority of the independent judiciary; the right to assistance of an advocate in a court proceeding emanates from this corollary—in England the function of barrister or advocate is distinguished from legal counselor ( solicitor ). [ 162 ] As the European Court of Human Rights has stated, the law should be adequately accessible to everyone and people should be able to foresee how the law affects them. [ 163 ]

In order to maintain professionalism, the practice of law is typically overseen by either a government or independent regulating body such as a bar association , bar council or law society . Modern lawyers achieve distinct professional identity through specified legal procedures (eg successfully passing a qualifying examination), are required by law to have a special qualification (a legal education earning the student a Bachelor of Laws , a Bachelor of Civil Law or a Juris Doctor degree [ 164 ] ), and are constituted in office by legal forms of appointment ( being admitted to the bar ). Most Muslim countries have developed similar rules about legal education and the legal profession, but some still allow lawyers with training in traditional Islamic law to practice law before personal status law courts. [ 165 ] In China and other developing countries there are not sufficient professionally-trained people to staff the existing judicial systems, and, accordingly, formal standards are more relaxed. [ 166 ]

Once accredited, a lawyer will often work in a law firm , in a chambers as a sole practitioner, in a government post or in a private corporation as an internal counsel . In addition a lawyer may become a legal researcher who provides on-demand legal research through a library, a commercial service or through freelance work. Many people trained in law put their skills to use outside the legal field entirely. [ 167 ]

Significant to the practice of law in the common law tradition is the legal research to determine the current state of the law. This usually entails exploring case-law reports , legal periodicals and legislation. Law practice also involves drafting documents such as court pleadings , persuasive briefs , contracts, or wills and trusts. Negotiation and dispute resolution skills (including ADR techniques) are also important to legal practice, depending on the field. [ 168 ]

[ edit ] Civil society

A march in Washington DC during the US Civil Rights Movement in 1963

Classical republican concept of "civil society" dates back to Hobbes and Locke. [ 169 ] Locke saw civil society as people who have "a common established law and judicature to appeal to, with authority to decide controversies between them." [ 170 ] German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel distinguished the "state" from "civil society" ( burgerliche Gesellschaft ) in Elements of the Philosophy of Right . [ 171 ]

Hegel believed that civil society and the state were polar opposites, within the scheme of his dialectic theory of history. The modern dipole state–civil society was reproduced in the theories of Alexis de Tocqueville and Karl Marx . [ 172 ] [ 173 ] Nowadays in post-modern theory civil society is necessarily a source of law, by being the basis from which people form opinions and lobby for what they believe law should be. As Australian barrister and author Geoffrey Robertson QC wrote of international law,

... one of its primary modern sources is found in the responses of ordinary men and women, and of the non-governmental organizations which many of them support, to the human rights abuses they see on the television screen in their living rooms. [ 174 ]

Freedom of speech , freedom of association and many other individual rights allow people to gather, discuss, criticise and hold to account their governments, from which the basis of a deliberative democracy is formed. The more people are involved with, concerned by and capable of changing how political power is exercised over their lives, the more acceptable and legitimate the law becomes to the people. The most familiar institutions of civil society include economic markets, profit-oriented firms, families, trade unions , hospitals, universities, schools, charities, debating clubs , non-governmental organisations , neighbourhoods, churches, and religious associations. [ 175 ]

[ uredi ] Vidi tako?er

[ uredi ] Bilješke

  1. ^ Hamilton, Marci. God vs. the Gavel , page 296 (Cambridge University Press 2005): “The symbol of the judicial system, seen in courtrooms throughout the United States, is blindfolded Lady Justice.”
  2. ^ Fabri, Marco. The challenge of change for judicial systems , page 137 (IOS Press 2000): “the judicial system is intended to be apolitical, its symbol being that of a blindfolded Lady Justice holding balanced scales.”
  3. ^ Luban, Law's Blindfold , 23
  4. ^ From Old English lagu "Words of Mel"; legal comes from Latin legalis , from lex "law", "statute" ( Law , Online Etymology Dictionary; Legal , Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary)
  5. ^ Robertson, Crimes against humanity , 90; see " analytical jurisprudence " for extensive debate on what law is; in The Concept of Law Hart argued law is a "system of rules" (Campbell, The Contribution of Legal Studies , 184); Austin said law was "the command of a sovereign, backed by the threat of a sanction" (Bix, John Austin ); Dworkin describes law as an "interpretive concept" to achieve justice (Dworkin, Law's Empire , 410); and Raz argues law is an "authority" to mediate people's interests (Raz, The Authority of Law , 3–36).
  6. ^ nb this translation reads, "it is more proper that law should govern than any one of the citizens" (Aristotle, Politics 3.16 ).
  7. ^ The original French is: "La loi, dans un grand souci d'égalité, interdit aux riches comme aux pauvres de coucher sous les ponts, de mendier dans les rues et de voler du pain" (France, The Red Lily , Chapter VII ).
  8. ^ Although many scholars argue that "the boundaries between public and private law are becoming blurred", and that this distinction has become mere "folklore" (Bergkamp, Liability and Environment , 1–2).
  9. ^ Eg in England these seven subjects, with EU law substituted for international law, make up a "qualifying law degree". For criticism, see Peter Birks ' poignant comments attached to a previous version of the Notice to Law Schools .
  10. ^ History of the UN , United Nations. Winston Churchill ( The Hinge of Fate , 719) comments on the League of Nations' failure: "It was wrong to say that the League failed. It was rather the member states who had failed the League."
  11. ^ The prevailing manner of enforcing international law is still essentially "self help"; that is the reaction by states to alleged breaches of international obligations by other states (Robertson, Crimes against Humanity , 90; Schermers-Blokker, International Institutional Law , 900–901).
  12. ^ Petersmann, The GATT/WTO Dispute Settlement System International Criminal Court , 32
  13. ^ Redfem, International Commercial Arbitration , 68–69
  14. ^ Schermers–Blokker, International Institutional Law , 943
  15. ^ See the fundamental C-26/62 Van Gend en Loos v Nederlanse Administratie Der Belastingen , and Flaminio Costa v ENEL decisions of the European Court.
  16. ^ Entick v Carrington (1765) 19 Howell's State Trials 1030; [1765] 95 ER 807
  17. ^ "Entick v Carrington" . 19 Howell's State Trials 1029 (1765) . USA : Constitution Society . http://www.constitution.org/trials/entick/entick_v_carrington.htm . Retrieved 2008-11-13 .  
  18. ^ Locke, The Second Treatise , Chapter 9, section 124
  19. ^ Tamanaha, On the Rule of Law , 47
  20. ^ Auby, Administrative Law in France , 75
  21. ^ Cesare Beccaria 's seminal treatise of 1763–1764 is titled On Crimes and Punishments ( Dei delitti e delle pene ).
  22. ^ a b Brody, Acker and Logan, Criminal Law , 2; Wilson, Criminal Law , 2
  23. ^ Brody, Acker and Logan, Criminal Law , 2
  24. ^ See eg Brody, Acker and Logan, Criminal Law , 205 about Robinson v. California , 370 US 660 (1962).
  25. ^ See eg Feinman, Law 111 , 260–261 about Powell v Texas , 392 US 514 (1968).
  26. ^ Dörmann, Doswald-Beck and Kolb, Elements of War Crimes , 491
  27. ^ Kaiser, Leistungsstörungen , 333
  28. ^ About R v Dudley and Stephens [1884] 14 QBD 273 DC , see Simpson, Cannibalism and the Common Law , 212–217, 229–237
  29. ^ Pelser, Criminal Legislation , 198
  30. ^ The States Parties to the Rome Statute , International Criminal Court
  31. ^ Wehberg, Pacta Sunt Servanda , 775
  32. ^ About Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company [1893] 1 QB 256 , and the element of consideration, see Beale and Tallon, Contract Law , 142–143
  33. ^ Austotel v Franklins (1989) 16 NSWLR 582
  34. ^ eg In Germany, § 311 Abs. II BGB
  35. ^ § 105 Abs. II BGB
  36. ^ Smith, The Structure of Unjust Enrichment Law , 1037
  37. ^ Bolton v Stone [1951] AC 850
  38. ^ a b Donoghue v Stevenson ( [1932] AC 532, 1932 SC (HL) 31, [1932] All ER Rep 1 ). See the original text of the case in UK Law Online .
  39. ^ Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 532, 580
  40. ^ a b Sturges v Bridgman (1879) 11 Ch D 852
  41. ^ eg concerning a British politician and the Iraq War, George Galloway v Telegraph Group Ltd [2004] EWHC 2786
  42. ^ Taff Vale Railway Co v Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants [1901] AC 426
  43. ^ In the UK, Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 ; cf in the US, National Labor Relations Act
  44. ^ Harris, The Bubble Act , 610–627
  45. ^ eg Hunter v Canary Wharf Ltd [1997] 2 All ER 426
  46. ^ Armory v Delamirie (1722) 93 ER 664, 1 Strange 505
  47. ^ Matthews, The Man of Property , 251–274
  48. ^ Savigny, Das Recht des Besitzes , 25
  49. ^ Locke, Second Treatise on Civil Government , Chap. IX. Of the Ends of Political Society and Government. Chapter 9, section 123.
  50. ^ McGhee, Snell's Equity , 7
  51. ^ cf Bristol and West Building Society v Mothew [1998] Ch 1
  52. ^ Keech v Sandford (1726) Sel Cas Ch 61
  53. ^ Nestlé v National Westminster Bank plc [1993] 1 WLR 1260
  54. ^ A Guide to the Treaty of Lisbon , The Law Society
  55. ^ Berle, Modern Corporation and Private Property
  56. ^ WIPO, Intellectual Property , 3
  57. ^ Modern scholars argue that the significance of this distinction has progressively declined; the numerous legal transplants , typical of modern law, result in the sharing by modern legal systems of many features traditionally considered typical of either common law or civil law (Mattei, Comparative Law and Economics , 71)
  58. ^ Civil law jurisdictions recognise custom as "the other source of law"; hence, scholars tend to divide the civil law into the broad categories of "written law" ( ius scriptum ) or legislation, and "unwritten law" ( ius non scriptum ) or custom. Yet they tend to dismiss custom as being of slight importance compared to legislation (Georgiadis, General Principles of Civil Law , 19; Washofsky, Taking Precedent Seriously , 7).
  59. ^ Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law , 18
  60. ^ Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law , 21
  61. ^ Stein, Roman Law in European History , 32
  62. ^ Stein, Roman Law in European History , 35
  63. ^ Stein, Roman Law in European History , 43
  64. ^ Hatzis, The Short-Lived Influence of the Napoleonic Civil Code in Greece , 253–263
  65. ^ Demirgüç-Kunt -Levine, Financial Structures and Economic Growth , 204
  66. ^ The World Factbook – Field Listing – Legal system , CIA
  67. ^ Magna Carta , Fordham University
  68. ^ Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law , 4
  69. ^ Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law , 3
  70. ^ Pollock (ed) Table Talk of John Selden (1927) 43; "Equity is a roguish thing. For law we have a measure... equity is according to the conscience of him that is Chancellor, and as that is longer or narrower, so is equity. 'Tis all one as if they should make the standard for the measure a Chancellor's foot."
  71. ^ Gee v Pritchard (1818) 2 Swans. 402, 414
  72. ^ Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, Book the First – Chapter the First
  73. ^ Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law , 17
  74. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World , 159
  75. ^ Anderson, Law Reform in the Middle East , 43
  76. ^ Giannoulatos, Islam , 274–275
  77. ^ Sherif, Constitutions of Arab Countries , 157–158
  78. ^ Saudi Arabia , Jurist
  79. ^ Akhlagi, Iranian Commercial Law , 127
  80. ^ Hallaq, The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law , 1
  81. ^ Théodoridés. "law". Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt .  
  82. ^ VerSteeg, Law in ancient Egypt
  83. ^ Richardson, Hammurabi's Laws , 11
  84. ^ Kelly, A Short History of Western Legal Theory , 5–6
  85. ^ JP Mallory, "Law", in Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture , 346
  86. ^ Ober, The Nature of Athenian Democracy , 121
  87. ^ Kelly, A Short History of Western Legal Theory , 39
  88. ^ Stein, Roman Law in European History , 1
  89. ^ As a legal system, Roman law has affected the development of law worldwide. It also forms the basis for the law codes of most countries of continental Europe and has played an important role in the creation of the idea of a common European culture (Stein, Roman Law in European History , 2, 104–107).
  90. ^ Sealey-Hooley, Commercial Law , 14
  91. ^ Mattei, Comparative Law and Economics , 71
  92. ^ For discussion of the composition and dating of these sources, see Olivelle, Manu's Code of Law , 18–25.
  93. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World , 276
  94. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World , 273
  95. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World , 287
  96. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World , 304
  97. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World , 305
  98. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World , 307
  99. ^ Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World , 309
  100. ^ Farah, Five Years of China WTO Membership , 263–304
  101. ^ Rousseau, The Social Contract , Book II: Chapter 6 (Law)
  102. ^ Bix, John Austin
  103. ^ Fritz Berolzheimer , The World's Legal Philosophies , 115–116
  104. ^ Kant, Immanuel , Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals , 42 (par. 434)
  105. ^ Green, Legal Positivism
  106. ^ Nietzsche, Zur Genealogie der Moral , Second Essay, 11
  107. ^ Kazantzakis, Friedrich Nietzsche and the Philosophy of Law , 97–98
  108. ^ Linarelli, Nietzsche in Law's Cathedral , 23–26
  109. ^ Marmor, The Pure Theory of Law
  110. ^ Bielefeldt, Carl Schmitt's Critique of Liberalism , 25–26
  111. ^ Finn, Constitutions in Crisis , 170–171
  112. ^ Bayles, Hart's Legal Philosophy , 21
  113. ^ Dworkin, Law's Empire , 410
  114. ^ Raz, The Authority of Law , 3–36
  115. ^ Raz, The Authority of Law , 37 etc.
  116. ^ According to Malloy ( Law and Economics , 114), Smith established "a classical liberal philosophy that made individuals the key referential sign while acknowledging that we live not alone but in community with others".
  117. ^ Jakoby, Economic Ideas and the Labour Market , 53
  118. ^ "The Becker-Posner Blog" . http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/beckerposner/ . Dobavljeno 2010-05-20.  
  119. ^ Coase, The Nature of the Firm , 386–405
  120. ^ Coase, The Problem of Social Cost , 1–44
  121. ^ Coase, The Problem of Social Cost , IV, 7
  122. ^ Coase, The Problem of Social Cost , V, 9
  123. ^ Coase, The Problem of Social Cost , VIII, 23
  124. ^ a b Jary, Collins Dictionary of Sociology , 636
  125. ^ Rottleuthner, La Sociologie du Droit en Allemagne , 109
  126. ^ Rottleuthner, Rechtstheoritische Probleme der Sociologie des Rechts , 521
  127. ^ Rheinstein, Max Weber on Law and Economy in Society , 336
  128. ^ Johnson, The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology, 156
  129. ^ Gurvitch, Sociology of Law , 142
  130. ^ Papachristou, Sociology of Law , 81–82
  131. ^ Montesquieu , The Spirit of Laws , Book XI: Of the Laws Which Establish Political Liberty, with Regard to the Constitution, Chapters 6–7
  132. ^ Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan , XVII
  133. ^ A Brief Overview of the Supreme Court , Supreme Court of the United States
  134. ^ House of Lords Judgments , House of Lords
  135. ^ Entscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts , Bundesverfassungsgericht
  136. ^ Jurisprudence, publications, documentation , Cour de cassation
  137. ^ Goldhaber, European Court of Human Rights , 1–2
  138. ^ Patterson, Brown v. Board of Education
  139. ^ Dicey, Law of the Constitution , 37–82
  140. ^ Eg, the court president is a political appointee (Jensen–Heller, Introduction , 11–12). About the notion of "judicial independence" in China, see Findlay, Judiciary in the PRC , 282–284
  141. ^ a b Sherif, Constitutions of Arab Countries , 158
  142. ^ Rasekh, Islamism and Republicanism , 115–116
  143. ^ Riker, The Justification of Bicameralism , 101
  144. ^ Riker, The Justification of Bicameralism , 101
  145. ^ About "cabinet accountability" in both presidential and parliamentary systems, see Shugart–Haggard, Presidential Systems , 67 etc.
  146. ^ Haggard, Presidents, Parliaments and Policy , 71
  147. ^ Haggard, Presidents, Parliaments and Policy , 71
  148. ^ Olson, The New Parliaments of Central and Eastern Europe , 7
  149. ^ See, eg Tuberville v Savage ( 1669 ), 1 Mod. Rep. 3, 86 Eng. Rep. 684, where a knight said in a threatening tone to a layman, "If it were not assize time, I would not take such language from you."
  150. ^ History of Police Forces , History.com Encyclopedia
  151. ^ Des Sergents de Ville et Gardiens de la Paix à la Police de Proximité , La Préfecture de Police
  152. ^ Weber, Politics as a Vocation
  153. ^ Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organisation , 154
  154. ^ In these cases sovereignty is eroded, and often warlords acquire excessive powers (Fukuyama, State-Building , 166–167).
  155. ^ Bureaucracy , Online Etymology Dictionary
  156. ^ Albrow, Bureaucracy , 16
  157. ^ Mises, Bureaucracy , II, Bureaucratic Management
  158. ^ a b Kettl, Public Bureaucracies , 367
  159. ^ Weber, Economy and Society , I, 393
  160. ^ Kettl, Public Bureaucracies , 371
  161. ^ Hazard–Dondi, Legal Ethics , 22
  162. ^ Hazard–Dondi, Legal Ethics , 1
  163. ^ The Sunday Times v The United Kingdom [1979] ECHR 1 at 49 Case no. 6538/74
  164. ^ Higher academic degrees may also be pursued. Examples include a Master of Laws , a Master of Legal Studies or a Doctor of Laws .
  165. ^ Ahamd, Lawyers: Islamic Law [ dead link ]
  166. ^ Hazard–Dondi, Legal Ethics , 22–23
  167. ^ Fine, The Globalisation of Legal Education , 364
  168. ^ Fine, The Globalisation of Legal Education , 364
  169. ^ Warren, Civil Society , 3–4
  170. ^ Locke, Second Treatise , Chap. VII, Of Political or Civil_Society. Chapter 7, section 87
  171. ^ Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right , 3, II, 182 ; Karkatsoulis, The State in Transition , 277–278
  172. ^ (Pelczynski, The State and Civil Society , 1–13; Warren, Civil Society , 5–9)
  173. ^ Zaleski, Pawel (2008). "Tocqueville on Civilian Society. A Romantic Vision of the Dichotomic Structure of Social Reality". Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte (Felix Meiner Verlag) 50 .  
  174. ^ Robertson, Crimes Against Humanity , 98–99
  175. ^ There is no clear legal definition of the civil society, and of the institutions it includes. Most of the institutions and bodies who try to give a list of institutions (such as the European Economic and Social Committee ) exclude the political parties. For further information, see Jakobs, Pursuing Equal Opportunities , 5–6; Kaldor–Anheier–Glasius, Global Civil Society , passim [ dead link ] (PDF); Karkatsoulis, The State in Transition , 282–283.

[ uredi ] Reference

Printed sources
Online sources

[ uredi ] Vanjske poveznice

Osobni alati
Imenskom prostoru

Varijante
Akcije
Navigacija
Interakcija
Kutija za alat
Ispis / izvoz
Jezici

mk.gd - Translate any webpage in real-time - This webpage has been translated in order to make it available in another language, view original page

View this page in: Afrikaans, Albanian, Arabic, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese (Simp), Chinese (Trad), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Filipino, Finnish, French, Galician, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Malay, Maltese, Norwegian, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Swahili, Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese, Welsh, Yiddish

Content and any subsequent copyright is upheld by the third-party - contact@mk.gd